Application nb. one particular
24. 02. 2009
Application nb. 1
The ensemble of operations to be able to obtain programs and maps is known as surneying. Because during land surveying, the computations involve a sizable volume of work, it is right that the method of doing these calculations to be well studied.
To be able to establish the position of factors, depending on a reference coordinates system, associated with the Earth's surface, it is very important the knowledge of some necessary surveying computations. Datums
1 . The space rectangle-shaped coordinates from the 32 and 43 items from the triangulation network. installment payments on your The benefits of measurements for developing the space position of a fresh point, 107: the side to side angle, ОІ, the zenith angle, Unces, the ground range, di, which can be measured directly using a 50 m very long steel calculating tape.
(X43, Y43, Z43)
(X32, Y32, Z32)
Fig. 1 . 1
The applications datums containg the first elements my spouse and i. e., space rectangular heads of the 32 and 43 points, plus the elements as a result of field measurements as the horizontal and zenith perspectives and the floor distance will be indicated in table.
BE AWARE: The datums of the software will be modified as below: the abscisa of the thirty-two point: X32 +/-n(m)
the earth distance: pada +/-n(m)
Stand 1 . one particular
231, ninety six
The application is going to consist of:
1 ) Determination from the grid bearing and side to side distance of 32 вЂ“ 43 their coordinates. installment payments on your Determination, by transfer, with the 32 вЂ“ 107 direction's grid bearing. 3. Perseverance of the length reduced to the horizontal do and the level difference between the known stage, 32 as well as the new a single, 107.
4. Determination of the relative planes rectangular coordinates x and y from the 107 level. 5. Willpower of the space rectangular runs of the 107 point. Option
The topographic plan is definitely an rechtwinklig projection. The points position on the strategy is established within a plane rectangle-shaped coordinates program. For Romania, according to the stereographic projection 70, the general airplane rectangular runs system was obtained taking into consideration the abscisa Back button as the airplane projection with the central point's meridian located north of Fagaras (Ngo), and the ordinate Y perpendicularly on the abscisa in the central point (fig. 1 . 2 ). This way the coordinates axis have a similar orientation because the capital points (the X axis on H вЂ“ N direction and Y axis on T вЂ“ At the direction. ). In the conformal traverse cylindrical projection (Gauss' s projection), the Back button axis is represented by plane discharge of the central meridian, as well as the image of terrestrial equator in the form of a straight collection at right angle for the axial (central) meridian is Y axis. In the zonal system, the foundation of coordinates for all factors in the offered zone is definitely assumed to the intersection from the central meridian with the equator. ( fig. 1 . several ).
In surveying the direction according to which all the directions in field will be determinated can be represented by the north ( N ) direction.
For the Earth's surface area, through issue we have a certain geographical ( or authentic ) meridian that has a steady position and a certain magnet meridian that is not stable in time. As a research direction we will take a parallel to the geographical meridian of the central point ( in the case of stereographic projection ) and to the central meridian ( when it comes to Gauss's discharge ). In this way, the main grid bearing of a direction of line A-B, written ОёAB, is used to discover the direction of line A-B with reference to the central meridian, or to a line seite an seite to it. The grid...
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