International Diary of Law and Psychiatry
Foreign Journal of Law and Psychiatry thirty-six (2013) 333–337
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International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Is there a recognizable post-incarceration syndrome among released " lifers”? Marieke Liem a, ⁎, Maarten Kunst b
Harvard School, United States Laborieren University, Holland
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It has been suggested that released criminals experience a unique set of mental health symptoms related to, although not limited to, ptsd. We wanted to empirically assess whether there is a familiar post-incarceration symptoms that reflects the unique effects of incarceration in mental wellness. We executed in-depth existence interviews with 25 produced " lifers” (individuals serving a lifestyle sentence), who also served an average of 19 years in a point out correctional establishment. We examined to what level the symptoms described by the participants overlapped with other mental disorders, especially PTSD. The narratives indicate a speciﬁc cluster of mental well being symptoms: In addition to PTSD, this bunch was seen as a institutionalized personality traits, social–sensory sweat, and hysteria. Our ﬁndings suggest that post-incarceration syndrome creates a discrete subtype of PTSD that results coming from long-term imprisonment. Recognizing Post-Incarceration Syndrome might allow for more adequate reputation of the associated with incarceration and treatment between ex-inmates and ultimately, successful re-entry into society. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights set aside.
Available online 31 April 2013 Keywords: Post-incarceration syndrome Post-incarceration effects PTSD Effects of imprisonment Lifers
1 ) Introduction To particular date, numerous research have shed light on the prevalence of mental disorders between inmates (Fazel & Danesh, 2002; Lamb & Weinberger, 1998). We realize much less, however , about the inﬂuence of imprisonment on the development of mental disorder. The long-term effects of exposure to strong and upsetting situations, situations, and constructions mean that prisons themselves may also bring about emotional problems as a result of prison stress. The majority of earlier studies include described these kinds of problems with regards to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Goff, Increased, Rose, & Purves, 2007). PTSD was ﬁrst released in the third revised variation of the Classification and Record Manual intended for Mental Disorders (DSM-III, 1980) as an anxiety disorder and is characterized by consistent re-experiencing, elimination, hyper sexual arousal levels and psychological numbing. Within a recent study on the living conditions of criminals serving long-term (> 5 years) phrases in 14 European countries, Dudeck et approach. (2011) located that 14% developed PTSD subsequent to disturbing events experienced in jail (Dudeck et al., 2011). Much higher costs have been reported for prisoners of battle (Lindman Dock, Engdahl, & Frazier, 2001; Speed, Engdahl, Schwartz, & Eberly, 1989), wrongfully found guilty and noteworthy motivated ex-prisoners (Jamieson & Grounds, 2005) and jailed asylum seekers (Ichikawa, Nakahara, & Wakai, 2006). ⁎ Matching author in: Program in Felony Justice, Kennedy School of presidency, Harvard College or university, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States. Tel.: +1 617 495 8255. E-mail treat: [email protected] harvard. edu (M. Liem). 0160-2527/$ – observe front subject © 2013 Elsevier Limited. All privileges reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2013.04.012
A major problem together with the description of detention-related mental problems regarding PTSD is the fact its characteristic diagnostic features do not fully understand the complex nature of trauma as a result of incarceration. Based upon a review of the literature, Herman (1992) argued that traumatization among criminals and other risky groups can be characterized by serious and repeated exposure, heterogeneous symptoms, and enduring individuality changes (Herman, 1992). To emphasize this complexity,...
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