Dutch Beneath Nazi Occupation

 Dutch Underneath Nazi Profession Essay

Natalia Szlarb

Introduction to Dutch Studies

27. 04. 2011

British The english language

Accommodation, Co-operation or Effort?

Dutch population under the The german language Occupation

The German career in the Holland has been, and probably will be the reason for the heated debate amongst historians, political figures or Dutch citizens themselves for quite a long time. The question which in turn triggers the emotions is usually how the Nederlander people acted during the profession. One the most influential historians within this matter, Sobre Jong, one of the initial faced the myth of an intransigent people standing to the terror of occupier. [1] In the evolution of this view, there is certain general opinion reached by most of the historians; most of the Nederlander people tried to adopt " accommodation” strategy during the profession. The article focuses somewhat on the daily aspects of typical Dutchman to understand sociology behind it; it looks at the specific Dutch attitude of " accommodation” during A language like german occupation, the origins and the consequences.

1 . Prewar Dutch-German relations

As opposed to common belief, a faraway from insignificant rapprochement between the Nederlander and the Nazis had been around during the interwar periods. The origins could possibly be traced somehow similar ideological and cost effective motives i actually. e. a virulent anti-communism that got deeply entered in the Nederlander elites. In 1917, after the collapse of tsardom, the Bolsheviks annulled all international debts. Although it was not the Dutch Authorities that suffered, but mainly private those who had spent heavily inside the empire of the Tsar. Just the amount of 1 billion guilders was at share which was more than the total sum of Dutch twelve-monthly expenditure.[2] The regular hatred of Communists proved to be somehow prevalent ground pertaining to Dutch and Germans before the war.

The pro-German attitude in the Holland among government bodies and elites was as well confirmed by German diplomat Wolfgang uber Putlitz, who also spent 4 years in England, and was moved to take the new post as the Counselor inside the Hague. In the memories he writes " In England I had never come across officials in leading agencies who also expressed their sympathy to get the new Germanism as with excitement as in holland […] The National Socialists of Mr. Mussert[3] got supporters in almost all ministers and even among the royal home […] Generally there Chiefs of Police who, summarily, in one transmission from Butting[4] deported German born emigrants at any time of working day or evening, and passed them to Gestapo […] I use never heard that the Nederlander government called for a single document concerning these kinds of arbitrary works, which were known to us by the dozen”[5]. In the prewar phase, the Netherlands seemed to include accepted the rise of " significant nationalism” in the neighboring region, and as long as they have not damaged Netherlands, Nederlander population stayed lenient towards more and more intense German improvements[6].

The evidence of deeper relations together with the Nazi Germany is definitely undeniable. Among the list of Dutch authorities, particularly among the staff of police, there are few who offered their service to the Nazis already before the conflict. In Amsterdam for example , law enforcement commissioner, Broekhoff, personally up to date in 1935 to the Gestapo officials in Berlin which the Dutch Ressortchef (umgangssprachlich) of Defence would cooperate against " kommunistische and marxistische Umtriebe” (communist and Marxist machinastions). With the pen-name " David” Broekhoff took care of exchange of data due to which will 250 German born " illegals” who fled to the Holland immediately had been arrested following the occupation in 1940.[7] The primary commissioner of police in Rotterdam, Mister. L. Eintoven, together with 17 other Nederlander police officers regarded as " deutschfriendlich” in the list authored by Gestapo.

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Bibliography: Hirschfeld Gerhard, Nazi Rule and Dutch Collaboartion, The Netherlands beneath German Profession, Hamburg 1988

Jong Paillette, The Netherlands and Nazi Germany, Harvard University Press, 1990

Warmbrunn, The Nederlander under German born Occupation 1940-45. Stanford School Press, 1963

Brinks January Herman, The Dutch, the Germans and the Jews

Woolf, Linda M., Survival and Resistance: Holland Under Nazi Occupation, Nyc, 2000

Stalinsky, Leslie Ann, " Dutch Resistance to the Nazis during World Battle Two" (2003)

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[1] Jong Paillette, The Netherlands and Nazi Germany, Harvard University Press, 1990

[2] Zee, C. " To stop worse. The Preparation and execution with the destruction of Dutch Jewry during the Second World War” Amsterdam, 1997, p. 40

[3] Head of the Dutch Nazis

[10] Warmbrunn, The Dutch under German Occupation 1940-45. Stanford University Press, 1963

[11] Jong Paillette, The Netherlands and Nazi Germany, Harvard University Press, 1990

[12] Warmbrunn, The Dutch beneath German Profession 1940-45. Stanford University Press, 1963

[13] Jong Paillette, The Netherlands and Nazi Germany, Harvard University Press, 1990

[18] Jong Paillette, The Netherlands and Nazi Germany, Harvard University Press, 1990

[19] Jong John, The Netherlands and Nazi Germany, Harvard University Press, 1990

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